# Grok all the things

grok (v): to understand (something) intuitively.

# Scheme

πββοΈ Β Students & Apprentices

Scheme is a beautifully minimalistic and elegant programming language that has carved its own unique niche in the universe of programming languages.

Prepare for a mind-bending adventure as we unravel the mysteries of Scheme, its origins, its unique semantics, and how it has inspired countless programmers to think differently about programming. Let's jump right into this adventure!

## The Birth of Scheme πΆπ

Scheme was born in the halls of artificial intelligence research. It hails from the legendary Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was created in the late 1970s by Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy L. Steele Jr. as a dialect of Lisp. What sets Scheme apart is its simplicity and purity, leading Scheme to become one of the most beloved languages for teaching programming and computer science concepts.

The original goal was to create a language that's small but powerful enough to express complex AI algorithms with clarity and elegance. With these goals in mind, Scheme distilled the essence of computation into a minimalistic and beautiful package.

## Meet Dr. Ξ»: The Power of Lambda Calculus ππ

At the very heart of Scheme lies an intriguing mathematical concept known as lambda calculus. Invented by Alonzo Church in the 1930s, lambda calculus is a system for expressing computation through the simple idea of applying functions to arguments. And you know what? Scheme takes this concept and runs wild with it!

Everything in Scheme is a function or an expression that evaluates to a value. You'll see this in action as we dive into examples and explore the power of lambda calculus in shaping this beautiful language.

## A First Glimpse of Scheme: Hello, World! ππ

To get a taste of Scheme's elegance and simplicity, let's look at the classic "Hello, World!" example:

``````(display "Hello, World!")
(newline)
``````

Just two lines of code! In the first line, we use the `display` function to print `"Hello, World!"`. Then, we call the `newline` function to move to the next line. Simple as that!

## Scheme's Syntax and Semantics: The Building Blocks π οΈπ§±

Get ready for some mind-bending syntax! Scheme uses prefix notation for its operations. Instead of writing `2 + 2`, you write `(+ 2 2)`. Let's delve deeper into this peculiar syntax:

``````(define x 42)        ; Define a variable x with a value 42
(define square (lambda (x) (* x x))) ; Define a function square that squares its input
(square x)           ; Call the square function with x as its argument => 1764
``````

Here's a breakdown:

1. We define the variable `x` with the value `42`.
2. We then define a function called `square` using a lambda expression, which takes an input `x` and returns the result of `(* x x)`.
3. Finally, we call the `square` function with `x` as its argument and get the result: `1764`.

(Psst! That semicolon `;` indicates a comment, just like `//` in other languages.)

### Lists: The Backbone of Scheme ππ

In true Lisp fashion, Scheme can represent programs as lists. Remember Dr. Ξ»? This is where his influence truly shines!

``````'(1 2 3 4)           ; A list containing the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4
(cons 0 '(1 2 3 4))  ; Add an element at the beginning of the list => (0 1 2 3 4)
(car '(1 2 3))        ; Get the first element of the list => 1
(cdr '(1 2 3))        ; Get the rest of the list => (2 3)
``````

Here's what we did:

1. We created a list of numbers using the quote `'` syntax.
2. We used `cons` to add an element to the beginning of the list.
3. We extracted the first element of a list using `car`.
4. We returned the rest of the list using `cdr`.

These simple building blocks combine and expand to create more complex and powerful data structures!

## Recursion: Scheme's Loop-de-Loop ππ’

Scheme loves recursion! In fact, looping constructs like `for` and `while` are absent in Scheme, but don't worry β recursion saves the day! Let's look at a classic example: calculating the factorial of a number.

``````(define (factorial n)
(if (< n 2)
1
(* n (factorial (- n 1)))))
(factorial 5) ; => 120
``````

Here, we define a `factorial` function using a recursive approach. The base case is when `n < 2`, we return `1`. Otherwise, we multiply `n` by the factorial of `(n - 1)`. Elegant and simple!

## In Conclusion: Celebrating the Beauty of Scheme ππ₯³

Scheme's minimalistic and elegant design has had a profound impact on how we think about programming. Although it might not be as widespread as other languages, Scheme has firmly held its ground in the programming domain due to its unique strengths.

From inspiring functional programming principles to providing an excellent platform for teaching computer science concepts, Scheme embodies the beauty and power of computation in a language that captures our imagination and excites our creative spirit.

Now carry on, brave adventurers! The world of Scheme has much more to offer than can be explored in this brief introduction. Unleash your creativity, delve further into this mesmerizing language, and let your quest for deeper knowledge continue!

Grok.foo is a collection of articles on a variety of technology and programming articles assembled by James Padolsey. Enjoy! And please share! And if you feel like you can donate here so I can create more free content for you.