# Grok all the things

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# Floating Point Arithmetic

👷‍♀️  Professionals

Ah, floating-point arithmetic! We're diving into a realm where numbers aren't as simple as they seem, and precision is a dance of compromise. Just like a tightrope walker balancing on a high wire, once you understand the subtle nuances of floating point arithmetic, you'll have the keys to unlock the mysteries of the numerical jungle!

## A Tale of Two Representations: Floating Point vs. Fixed Point 🏁

Before we go deep into the floating-point world, let's explore the differences between floating-point numbers and their more rigid cousins, fixed-point numbers.

Fixed-point numbers are stored in binary form. They have a fixed number of bits reserved for the fractional part and the whole number part, as well as one bit for the sign. And while fixed-point format offers adequate precision for many applications, in some situations, you'll need a wider range of values or a different level of precision.

That's where floating-point numbers come in! They take a more flexible approach to representing non-integer numbers. These numbers can store real numbers with varying degrees of precision.

So, how does this work?

## Meet the IEEE 754 Floating-Point Standard! 🎉

First things first: it's important to understand that floating-point numbers are stored according to the IEEE 754 Floating-Point Standard. This standard defines how they're represented in memory and how operations on them should be performed.

In this standard, a floating-point number essentially has three parts: the sign bit, exponent, and mantissa (also known as significand). The general equation for representing a floating-point number is:

``(-1)^sign * 2^(exponent - bias) * (1 + mantissa)``

We'll cover each part in more detail below!

### Sign 💼

The sign is just a single bit. If it's `0`, the number is positive, and if it's `1`, the number is negative.

### Exponent: Where the Magic Happens ✨

The exponent is used to scale the number by a power of two. The number of bits dedicated to the exponent varies depending on whether you're using single- or double-precision:

• Single-precision: 8 bits (23 bits for the mantissa)
• Double-precision: 11 bits (52 bits for the mantissa)

But wait! There's more! To avoid dealing with negative exponents, a bias is added to the exponent. For single-precision, it's 127, and for double-precision, it's 1023.

### Mantissa: Your Fractional Friend 🍕

The mantissa is the fractional part of the floating-point number. An important thing to note is the "hidden" 1 that's not explicitly stored in memory. So, when you store a floating-point number, the mantissa represents everything after the binary point:

``1.mantissa``

OK, now that we've laid down the groundwork, let's dive into some implications of this representation!

## Precision and Rounding Errors: Devil in the Details 😈

Floating-point numbers cannot represent all real numbers exactly. The finite number of bits means we sometimes have to round numbers.

For example, let's say we're using single-precision floating point numbers:

``````a = 0.1 + 0.2
print(a) # Outputs 0.30000001192092896
``````

Surprised? Yes, even a simple addition like this doesn't result in the exact value you'd expect. This discrepancy is due to rounding errors in floating-point numbers, which can cause unpredictable results in critical calculations.

## Special Values: NaN and Infinity 🔢

Floating-point arithmetic isn't limited to just traditional numbers; the IEEE 754 standard also defines some special values:

• Infinity (`Inf`): The result of dividing by zero or when a number grows too large.
• Not-a-Number (`NaN`): The result of undefined or unrepresentable operations, like `0/0` or `sqrt(-1)`.

These values propagate through arithmetic operations and are useful for handling exceptional cases in your calculations. Isn't that neat?

## Strategies for Mitigating Rounding Errors 🌊

Rounding errors in floating-point arithmetic may be inevitable, but there are ways to minimize them!

### Use Higher Precision 💎

If you need more precision in your calculations, you can choose to use double-precision floating-point numbers instead of single-precision. This will require more memory and computational power, but the increase in precision might be worth it.

### Careful Comparison ⚖️

Be cautious when comparing floating-point numbers for equality, as rounding errors can cause unexpected discrepancies. Instead of checking for exact equality, consider using an epsilon value to determine if two floating-point numbers are close enough:

``````def close_enough(a, b, epsilon=1e-9):
return abs(a - b) < epsilon
``````

### Rational Numbers as an Alternative 📏

If you need exact arithmetic, consider using rational numbers or libraries specifically designed for precise numerical computation.

And that's a wrap on floating point arithmetic! Now that you've plunged into the depths of this fascinating numerical realm, you're better equipped to handle the challenges that come with representing non-integer numbers in the digital world. Floating point arithmetic may be complex, but with the right understanding and tools, you can master it and unleash your inner numerical ninja!

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